city & country-side merges

more complex relationships

an emergent desire of life debureaucratization

trust distributed in network systems

ficticious money





In 1971, Richard Nixon declares the end of the metal ballasts inaugurating the economic hegemony of the dollar. By the end of the century, there were nearly two hundred national currencies, but the most dramatic shift of the age has been the widespread of fictitious money.


a new era for

As systems of trust evolve, a network of lenders begins to develop. They provide resources to borrowers with interest.


consolidation of

By connecting lenders with borrowers, banks create new markets and establish themselves as predominant economic intermediaries

Fiat money


Paper, coins and cheques - items without intrinsic value - emerge as symbolic
standards for global trade

exchange of

Stocks & bonds

by allowing investment in equity stakes of governments and incorporated business, stocks and bonds accelerate the capitalization of centrally organized institutions

from the ubiquitous U.S. dollar to local currencies, with no circulation outside the area controlled by their own national governments.

The currency market differs from all others in an even more fundamental way.
It is now powered by the Third Industrial Revolution.

the third

industrial revolution

The third industrial revolution or digital revolution which came in the 1980th brought computerisation, i.e. mainframe computers, personal computers, internet, and the information and communication technology (ICT) available today.


In other markets, merchants exchange goods for money; but in the currency market, traders exchange the money of one country for the money of another, with no other goods involved in the transaction.

They do not need to discuss metric versus American measurements, preferred voltage, or shipping lines; they need only haggle about the asking price.

Without the need to plant
 and harvest crops, or to manufacture and ship goods, the currency market suffers
no delays; transactions are instantaneous and electronic, the purest exchange of all.

$3 trillion dollars

The largest market in the world, the currency exchange has a daily turnover of more than

Access to credit allows nations, trade routes and companies to grow while concentrating power. In great symbiosis, banks and governments
power the global economy
to unforeseen prosperity.
Atop of extraordinary wealth, centralized institutions
become the de facto standards for governance.

Barbara Kruger, Untitled (Money can buy you love), 1985.
Collage. Courtesy of Sprüth Magers, Berlin and London.

The rise of internet

The globalization
of money and trade culminates with the use
of internet, by creating
a financial network of unprecedented scale, complexity and richness.




The future of payment methods

end of trust